What is wrought iron and what are the related products?

Wrought iron gates were originally designed to prevent forced intruders, or to maintain security, so to speak. The only way an intruder could get through a wrought iron gate was by using a battering ram and great force, or by removing the gate’s hinges.

Wrought iron is very tough and resilient, so much so that wrought iron railings and wrought iron gates made hundreds of years ago are still usable.

For wrought iron fences and fence panels, wrought iron is the ideal material because it is dense and strong, providing excellent strength throughout the gate; most gates have a panel, so a strong, impact-resistant material is needed.

What is wrought iron?

Wrought iron is a type of iron that is forged and rolled, rather than cast. It is made by pouring pig iron while it is melted. It is then tooled to create shapes, such as straight bars and decorative details on gates.

Wrought iron is preferred for gates because processed iron, rather than cast, produces a more stable product. It is also more ductile than cast iron and significantly stronger, with a higher tensile strength rating than some steels.

What are the advantages of wrought iron?

When choosing a wrought iron product for your home, wrought iron electric doors are unbeatable in several ways, including strength, longevity and pedigree.


Wrought iron has a tensile strength of 234-372 Mpa compared to 90 Mpa for unheated aluminum. it will never break or splinter on impact like wood, nor will it crumble or crack like fiberglass or other composite materials.

Long life span

Wrought iron sliding doors will last a lifetime when coated. The only serviceable parts are the electric motor and track (as with all doors). When exposed to water and air, the iron may show some rust, but this can be removed and recoated.

Historical origins

John Birkenshaw developed a method of rolling wrought iron railings in 1820, which became the standard at that time. Wrought iron is the traditional choice for house gates and railings, and iron has been used for railings and gates since the 16th century.


Although wrought iron sliding doors cost more than composite and aluminum doors, they can last a lifetime if they are cared for. The total cost of ownership is lower than other types of gates, so they make financial sense in the long run.

Related Products

Wrought iron related products include wrought iron fences, wrought iron guardrails, wrought iron fence panels and gates to name a few.

We offer Cheap Wrought Iron Fence

What is ironwork? And how did it develop?

The history of blacksmithing in China can also be described as an ancient trade, but it has never been able to get rid of the practical scope, in the late 20th century, in some developed cities in the south, out of the consideration of the need to live in housing security, began to install security doors and windows. At first it was just a fence made of some iron square and round tubes welded together, there was really no art to speak of, but its popularity became an opportunity for iron art to become popular in China.

With the development of the economy, began to appear some European classical decorative style of iron fence, with the appearance of the same time there is the use of European decorative style of the external wall of the building Roman column head, they echo, complement each other. Then these iron products are used in furniture, such as beds, coffee tables, tables and chairs, planters, etc., but due to cost considerations, the technology of these iron products is still in a very rudimentary degree, some slightly more complex rolled leaves, flowers and fruits and other ornaments are produced using industrialized machinery. Iron art sculptures are only some simple abstract shapes made of iron, stainless steel or copper plates, cut, cold work, and welded, as they are more suitable for environmental art in towns.

What are the applications and classification of iron art products

Iron art is divided into cast iron, wrought and handmade products, cast iron products are generally used to make the “big pieces” in iron art, such as fence railings, staircase handrails, gates, etc., with no less than four or five hundred kinds of shapes. Wrought and handmade iron products are these large decorative items, such as a variety of small animals, flower patterns, shape more, according to the person’s understanding of beauty design at will.

The emergence of iron art dresses up the residential areas of the people and some villa areas. There is a European-style villa area, the entire villa area of the gate, the fence is composed of iron products. From the outside, is the style of European-style iron railings fence, crawling with greenery, the small area is a large lawn green, plus some European-style sculpture, in the middle of it, people seem to enter a small foreign city often seen on TV. In addition, in many residential communities can often see iron fences, iron gates, window guards and other products.

The rise of iron art also dressed up the general public’s homes, so that the old European culture into the ordinary people. At home with a few pieces of iron furniture, coffee tables, chairs, lamps, etc., iron furniture rough lines combined with delicate craftsmanship, both furniture, but also art, buy a few pieces of style Europeanized iron furniture placed in the home, very tasteful. Iron art color and color description introduction

Iron art as arts and crafts, can be colorful. But in general, the color of iron art is relatively single, bronze color mostly, which is related to the material of iron art, more related to the application of iron art.

The color elements of iron art originate from its materials themselves, iron, copper, aluminum, gold, etc. The resulting natural colors are black, silver and white, red, green and yellow, which should be said to be the basic colors of iron art.

The color of iron art should not only reflect the qualities of iron art, but also be in harmony with the environment. Therefore, the color design of iron art should be both functional and spatial. If the pattern creates the life of iron art, then the color gives the emotion of iron art. The combination of pattern and color constitutes the charm of iron art, the style of iron art.

The ultimate purpose of the use of color is to convey feelings. People’s feelings about color, giving color specific complex. This feeling through the visual, tactile, auditory, emotional to express.

The design of iron single door

Iron door is a kind of antique and elegant handicraft products! The modern iron door is not only a security door, but also a cultural art. The shape of the iron door can be customized according to the situation! It can be a complex flower pattern!

Can be a simple square or round pipe welding, and other arc-type splicing welding! Modern villas, neighborhoods, rural self-built houses are being used!

Brief analysis of the principles of concrete structure design of high-rise buildings and its considerations

  With the continuous development of the city and the increase of population density, there are more and more high-rise buildings in China in recent years. At present, high-rise buildings mainly use reinforced concrete structure, which has high strength and load capacity and can ensure the structural stability of high-rise buildings.

Due to the easy and low cost of concrete construction, it has been widely used in China’s construction industry. The design of concrete structure for high-rise buildings is an important task in today’s construction industry, and it is necessary to improve the professional quality of designers to build high-quality and high-standard buildings, so as to promote the development of China’s urbanization process. The following article is a shallow analysis of the design of concrete structure of high-rise buildings.

Selection and conceptual design of concrete structure design of high-rise buildings

  1、Structural selection.

Three aspects need to be considered when making structural selection: structural regularity problem, structural super high problem and embedded end setting problem. The new and old versions of the structural code for high-rise buildings are very different, and in the new code, the restrictions on the structure have been increased.

Moreover, the new code explicitly states that buildings should not be designed with severe irregularities. Therefore, structural engineers need to pay more attention to the differences in the implementation of the new code to avoid being in a passive state during construction design. The total height of the building structure is strictly limited in the seismic code and the height code, and the new code has new regulations for the super high problem, adding the class b height building in addition to the class a height building. Therefore, we need to pay attention to control the problem of super high height when making structural selection. High-rise buildings often have basements, so structural design engineers need to pay attention to the embedded end settings.

  2、Concept design.

In order to ensure that the structure of high-rise buildings has good seismic capacity, designers need to use structural conceptual design in the design. This design method has high requirements for architects and structural designers, who must strictly comply with the specifications and regulations of structural conceptual design, and need to analyze the building structure comprehensively in the design process, not just rely on calculations to design.

In the design of structural system, it is necessary to pay more attention to the structure selection and layout rules, choose the structure type with better seismic capacity and wind resistance, and higher economy, and to design the calculation sketch of the structure to ensure the reasonable transmission of the earthquake force of the structure, and to ensure the similar dynamic characteristics in the two main directions. In addition, the conceptual design ensures that the high-rise building can be repaired after a moderate earthquake and that it will not collapse when a high earthquake occurs. In order to ensure the goal of “repairable in medium earthquakes and not collapsing in large earthquakes”, experts need to propose specific targets for the design and perfect the design of the stability and elasticity of the building.

Principles of concrete structure design for high-rise buildings


The wholeness of concrete structure design refers to the composition of each part into a whole, study the function and design law of the whole, and discover the characteristics of the whole from the whole and the parts.


In the process of concrete structure design, it is very important to fully understand its structure and its various elements. The structure of the building determines the performance and quality of the building, affecting its use in the building and its development, and it is also a carrier of performance, which can also react to the structure. The stability of the movement of the elements of the concrete structure is closely related to the structure.

  3. Optimality.

There is a difference integration in the design of the concrete structure, so that the various parts of the building are reasonably combined together, and the differences complement each other, support each other, and need each other to ensure the performance of the integrated. The formation of the building structure is also inseparable from the integration of differences, which fully reflects its importance, and we should pay attention to this point in the design process.


The dynamic principle of concrete structure design is to grasp the internal and external connection of the system, as well as the development trend, the law of dynamics, the way and other aspects, so that the concrete in the building to provide better application, to meet the needs, to grasp the direction of the times, to follow the footsteps of the times.

Considerations for structural design of high-rise buildings

  High-rise building design from the system selection, plan layout, vertical layout, seismic concept design all reflect the level of the designer, the following is a brief analysis of the structural design considerations of high-rise buildings.

  1、Selecting structural system.

The choice of structural system should be considered from architecture, structure, construction technical conditions, building materials, economy and other professions. The problem of regularity of the structure. Code in this regard has a considerable number of restrictions, such as: planar regularity information, embedded end of the upper and lower layer stiffness ratio information, etc., and, using mandatory provisions clearly stipulate that “the building should not adopt a seriously irregular design scheme.

“Therefore, structural engineers must pay extra attention in following the code provisions to avoid the passive work in the later construction drawing design stage. The problem of super high structure. In the seismic code and high regulations, there are strict restrictions on the total height of the structure, in addition to the original limit height set to A height buildings, but also increased the B height buildings, therefore, the height of the structure must be strictly controlled, once the structure for the B height buildings or more than the B height, its design methods and handling measures will have a greater change.

  2. “Setting joints”.

Temperature expansion joints, settlement joints and seismic joints are the more important structural measures in the design of high-rise structures. For temperature expansion joints, the influence of many factors, the specification with the maximum spacing of the structure expansion joints to control, but also provides the maximum spacing should be appropriately reduced and appropriate relaxation of the situation, should be based on the actual project specific implementation of the relevant provisions. Such as Beijing Chaoyang Commercial Center, Guangdong Foshan Hospital and other projects on the ground structure length are more than 100 meters, due to the adoption of reliable measures, but also not set up temperature expansion joints and good results.

Settlement joints due to the same building in the foundation of each part of the significant settlement difference, in the design, usually with “put”, “resistance”, “adjust” and other solutions, that is, set up settlement joints, the use of Rigidity of the foundation, adjust the form of each part of the foundation or construction sequence. At present, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other places mostly use bedrock end bearing pile, main building and podium room without joints; Beijing’s high-rise buildings generally use the practice of leaving post-cast belt during construction. Designers should be flexible in practice. The seismic joints are clearly defined in the code, but should be relaxed or reduced according to the actual situation.

  3、 The limit value of lateral displacement.

The horizontal displacement of high-rise building structure becomes larger rapidly with the growth of height. In order to prevent the displacement from being too large, the code has made restrictions on both the vertex displacement and inter-story displacement. The main purpose of controlling the vertex displacement u/h is to ensure the comfort of human body in the building and to prevent the collapse of the house in rare earthquakes.

However, the condition to control the collapse of the house in rare earthquakes is the ultimate deformation capacity of the structure rather than the u/h limit. In addition, in order to make the structure have better collapse prevention ability, the related effect should be considered in the structural calculation. The main purpose of controlling the inter-story displacement △u/h is to prevent the cracking and damage of non-structural components such as filling walls and decorations.

  4、Twisting problem in the design of high-rise building structure.

The geometric center of the building structure, the center of rigidity and the center of gravity of the structure are the three centers of the building, and the three centers of the building are required to converge at one point as far as possible when designing the structure, that is, the three centers are united. The torsion problem of the structure means that the three centers are not united in the process of structural design, and the torsional vibration effect occurs in the structure under the horizontal load.

In order to avoid the torsional damage of the building due to horizontal load, a reasonable structural form and plan layout should be chosen during the structural design, so that the building can achieve the unity of three centers as far as possible. Under the horizontal load, the size of torsional effect of high-rise building depends on the mass distribution. In order to make the horizontal force action of the floor evenly distributed along the plane and reduce the torsional vibration of the structure, the building plane should be made to adopt simple plane forms such as square, rectangle, circle, orthogonal polygon as far as possible.

In some cases, due to the requirements of urban planning on street landscape and the restrictions of building site, it is impossible for all the high-rise buildings to adopt simple plane forms, when it is necessary to use irregular L-shaped, T-shaped, cross-shaped and other more complex plane forms, the ratio of the thickness of the projecting part to the width should be controlled within the range allowed by the code, and at the same time, the structure should be as symmetrical as possible when the structure is arranged in the plane In the meantime, the structure should be symmetrical as far as possible.


  Improving the design of concrete structure of high-rise buildings can ensure the quality and performance of high-rise buildings, thus promoting the construction of China’s cities and the development of the construction industry. In the process of modern construction, the concrete structure of high-rise buildings needs to be designed strictly to ensure the quality of construction projects.

Reflections on the financial budgeting of concrete enterprises

 The importance of financial budgeting for concrete enterprises

  (A) Analysis of relevant concepts

  Financial budget refers to the overall objectives and strategies of the company, through the company engaged in the production and operation activities of all-round multi-angle analysis and summary, to achieve the classification of the company’s activities of each module of integrated management, and ultimately achieve the purpose of improving the company’s management capacity, reducing costs and improving operating profits. It can be said that the company’s financial budget is an effective means for the company to optimize the allocation of resources, and is one of the important strategies to improve the company’s market competitiveness.

  (B) Importance

  Financial budget work is very important for the company’s growth and development. Among them, the scientific choice of financial calculation methods is the most important to ensure the quality of financial budget. All production and operation-related income and expenditure of the company should be included in the company’s budget system and institutionalized to truly reflect the company’s operation and provide a reliable basis for the company’s leaders to formulate financing strategies and development strategies.

Problems of financial budgeting in concrete enterprises

  (A) Insufficient attention to financial budgeting

  At present, enterprises pay little attention to budget management, mainly because the leaders lack a proper understanding of financial budgeting. In today’s big economic era, financial budget management still exists in enterprises, but there is still the problem of lack of proper understanding of its importance, so that the implementation process of financial budget is too focused on the form, so it is difficult to play the role of financial budget in the development of enterprises. As we all know, the financial budgeting work of enterprises is very helpful to enhance the overall competitiveness of enterprises. The most important thing is to analyze the existing market before the next step of economic activities, to grasp the market development and adjust the strategy accordingly. However, most modern enterprises do not pay enough attention to this, which to a certain extent restricts the rapid development of the enterprise and also causes certain economic losses to the enterprise.

  (B) Insufficient budgeting and execution

  Generally speaking, the financial budget analysis of concrete enterprises is only once a year, which directly leads to the limitation of the supervision and control of the budget organization, and this budget is only obvious in the preparation process or analysis of the results, but it is not enough for the unexpected situation in the implementation, not to mention the timely correction, and this analysis is only an ex post facto evaluation. In addition, more companies are empirical and protectionist in their budget evaluation, which is often very different and arbitrary from the actual financial situation of the company. As a result, there is a lack of basic scientific judgment in assessing enterprises and evaluating employees, and such cases are even more frequent in large enterprises with relatively sound budget management.

  (C) Inadequate budget management organization system

  Budget management is a long-term, complex and tedious work, and the work procedure itself is contradictory to the enterprise system. Therefore, it indirectly leads to the inadequacy of the enterprise’s budget management organization system, which is unable to supervise the enterprise’s budget management comprehensively and make it difficult to guarantee the quality of work. Moreover, under the conditions of market economy, the enterprise’s own system organization concept is very weak, and the lack of macro-control role in the market is not conducive to the mutual coordination of various departments within the enterprise, which to a certain extent hinders the rapid development of the enterprise.

  (D) The problem of enterprise capital management

  Although most of the concrete enterprises today have built a financial budget mechanism, but there are still problems of insufficient calculation, poor control of capital flow, the calculation process is arbitrary, often overspending conditions, so that enterprises suffer greater economic losses. The evaluation index is too single, the assessment index is very undetailed, and the emphasis is on benefits rather than crises, limited only to the calculation of profits and expenses, but lacking targeted asset-based expenses and total capital calculation pre-programming. Therefore, in an increasingly volatile market, concrete enterprises should and must combine the characteristics of asset calculations with an organized allocation of items under their own control. When strong competition in the market changes the original estimation, the company should respond by reducing the calculation or increasing the calculation or both, so that the enterprise can better comply with the development of the market and guarantee the completion of the calculation in quality and quantity.

Countermeasures for financial budgeting of concrete enterprises

  (a) Improve the importance of financial budgeting

  According to the survey, the quality of budget management work in concrete enterprises are closely related to the professionalism of financial budgeting staff. That is, the company needs to organize a variety of regular and non-regular training to improve the financial staff’s attention to financial budgeting and understand the relationship between enterprise budgeting and the economic benefits and development of enterprises. In addition, in order to better mobilize the enthusiasm and enthusiasm of the financial staff, it is necessary to establish sound supporting reward and punishment measures.

  (B) strengthen the process of financial budgeting and implementation control

  Concrete enterprises due to the lack of scientific and standardized financial budgeting brought about by the problem is very serious, so we should strengthen the enterprise financial budgeting process and the implementation of control efforts. Specifically, we can give full play to the scientific research advantages of private organizations, universities and other third-party consulting institutions to apply the most advanced scientific concepts to the reality of practice and promote the transformation of science and technology into productivity in order to improve the financial budgeting techniques and levels of enterprises. In this process, it should be especially noted that different concrete enterprises have special conditions and conditions, because the realities encountered in different construction projects are also complex and changeable, so it is necessary to consider the scale of production and operation, management capacity, and the direction of development of the enterprise when formulating the financial budget, in order to ensure the scientific nature of the financial budgeting. This requires a clear financial budgeting system and strategy to regulate the preparation process, so as to effectively achieve the “law can be followed, there must be law”. In addition, to do a good job of financial budgeting supervision, the whole process of production and operation of concrete enterprises to carry out in-depth and effective evaluation and supervision, and through a variety of evaluation system and reward and punishment system to establish and improve the effectiveness of supervision. In short, we should be guided by the idea of keeping up with the times to promote the healthy and orderly development of concrete enterprises.

  (3) Strengthen the construction of the organizational system of financial budgeting of enterprises

  Concrete enterprise financial budgeting organization system includes budget management, information management network. Its ability to ensure the standardization and centralization of budgeting, the formation of a comprehensive financial management system based on information technology network. The enterprise financial budgeting organization system includes various departments in the enterprise, including procurement, production, operation and maintenance, sales, etc. Through timely access to the preparation information of each department, it can form accurate and time-sensitive financial information. At the same time, it can also improve the query system of financial information and facilitate the purpose of certain budget monitoring. The establishment of the system of information interchange can increase the close integration of finance and production and marketing departments, while gradually realizing the management of financial accounting system and marketing system, so as to ensure the authenticity, relevance and effectiveness of financial information.

  (4) Promote capital budget management

  Asset budget management is an important part of the financial management of concrete enterprises. First, concrete enterprises should strengthen the process construction and standards of budgetary tasks, promote the practical rationality of this task, and vigorously reduce errors. When carrying out market appraisal and crisis assessment, the operator should fully integrate the control of the operating funds of the concrete enterprise. The progress of the funds control task helps to strengthen the efficiency of the budget task, and the operator requires to strengthen the supervision on the original funds control strategy in order to promote the allocation of the budget task.


  With the rapid development of market economy, the traditional closed and backward financial budgeting management can no longer meet the needs of modern enterprise development. However, the current concrete enterprises do not pay enough attention to financial budgeting, and there are quite a lot of problems in the management. In response to these problems, this paper analyzes and discusses them. And on the basis of this, the solution countermeasures are proposed to improve the financial budgeting of concrete enterprises and promote the level of financial management of enterprises, while also laying a good foundation for the modernization and transformation of enterprises.

Analysis of the main causes of concrete cracks and prevention and control measures in water conservancy construction

With the rapid development of the national economy and the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, nowadays the society is more and more concerned about the engineering quality of water conservancy projects, and whether cracks appear in the concrete in water conservancy construction is able to directly reflect the quality of water conservancy projects.

Therefore, in the construction of water conservancy projects, the main causes of concrete cracks should be analyzed, and to find a suitable solution to ensure the safety of people’s lives and property.

1 The main construction characteristics of the water conservancy project

Water conservancy project construction has a long construction period, the construction process is more complex and construction scale and other construction characteristics. These construction characteristics are able to make the construction of water conservancy projects in the construction of certain quality problems, coupled with the construction of water conservancy projects are susceptible to natural environmental factors, resulting in concrete cracking problems have become a prominent problem in water conservancy construction.

Water conservancy project is an important national basic construction project, its purpose is to ensure the safety of people’s lives and property from flooding, so that the water conservancy project has the significant characteristics of large scale and long construction cycle; secondly, in the process of construction, due to the special nature of water conservancy construction, easy to be affected by the natural environment, which led to the construction process of water conservancy construction is very complex. , these natural factors include the construction site complex terrain, etc., these factors will have a certain impact on the quality of water conservancy projects, endangering the safety of life and property of the construction workers.

Therefore, in the process of construction, the construction personnel should be based on the characteristics of water conservancy construction, the construction process is strictly controlled, the quality of the problems arising from careful analysis to find solutions, and the development of relevant construction standards to prevent the recurrence of such engineering quality problems.

2 The main causes of concrete cracks in water conservancy projects

2.1 As the main solidification process of concrete inside and outside the temperature difference leads to the emergence of concrete cracks

In today’s water conservancy project construction, the general use of concrete structure, after the completion of concrete pouring, in the subsequent process of concrete will produce the phenomenon of heat of hydration, this phenomenon tends to make the concrete internal temperature difference, such temperature difference can cause concrete thermal expansion and contraction, which leads to the appearance of concrete cracks.

The reasons for the phenomenon of temperature difference inside concrete are generally the following.

The first is because in the process of concrete pouring construction of water conservancy projects, there is not enough cooling conditions, which leads to a higher temperature inside the concrete, in the process of concrete solidification, due to the evaporation of water in it, resulting in a large temperature difference between inside and outside the concrete, thus producing concrete cracks.

Another situation is due to the lower temperature inside the concrete during the construction of water conservancy projects in winter, resulting in the emergence of osmotic pressure, which will also cause concrete cracking.

The last reason is because of the low temperature at the construction site, during the process of concrete solidification, the moisture inside the concrete is frozen, which makes the internal volume of the concrete expand rapidly, and this can also produce concrete cracks.

2.2 Concrete cracks due to the imbalance of external forces

Hydraulic projects generally have a large scale, which leads to the construction process, the construction personnel can not well grasp the force situation of the concrete, resulting in the surface or side of the concrete due to uneven force, resulting in the appearance of concrete cracks. This uneven situation in the hand is often due to the complexity of the construction technology and conditions of water conservancy projects, can not have a detailed understanding of the structural characteristics of water conservancy projects, or because the construction personnel in the construction of the concrete materials before the specific force to make a detailed analysis of the test, resulting in the process of construction caused by the uneven force situation of concrete.

This situation generally occurs in the construction of dams in water conservancy projects, construction personnel to strengthen the upper layer of the dams in water conservancy projects, due to the lower layer of the dike force does not have a specific grasp of the situation, resulting in the lower layer of the dike force overweight, resulting in cracks in the concrete; another situation is the uneven force on the side of the concrete resulting in cracks in the concrete, water conservancy project dams in the interception of water flow In the process of intercepting the water flow, the flow of water has a single nature, so that the side of the dam is subjected to a large impact, resulting in uneven force on both sides of the dam, which is also prone to concrete cracks.

2.3 The complexity of the construction site of water conservancy projects leads to concrete cracks

The construction scale of water conservancy projects is large, so when the water conservancy construction is carried out, the selected construction site is generally far away from the city, so that the construction site is relatively complex because of the lack of artificial development, which has a certain impact on the construction of water conservancy projects, and the construction personnel can not make a specific examination of the specific construction environment of the construction site, which leads to the construction process can not pass These topographic data and water conservancy projects for reasonable construction, these topographic reasons mainly include the following aspects.

First is the construction site is richer in groundwater resources, in the season of higher rainfall, the circulation of these groundwater will accelerate, thus causing greater impact on the building structure of the water conservancy project, in the long run, there will be concrete cracks;.

Secondly, because the soil structure of the foundation of the water conservancy project, some water conservancy building land structure is relatively loose, which causes the construction process can not be well on the foundation of the water conservancy building for adequate reinforcement, which leads to the phenomenon of subsidence of the water conservancy building, this phenomenon can cause the uneven force of the water conservancy project building structure, which leads to the generation of concrete cracks.

3 water conservancy project in the concrete crack prevention measures

3.1 Ensure the quality of raw materials of concrete

The quality of raw materials of concrete directly determines the construction quality of water conservancy projects, so the construction unit in the purchase of concrete materials, must strictly grasp the quality of concrete, for the structural characteristics of water conservancy buildings, a reasonable proportion of concrete, after the completion of the proportion, for the force of various parts of the water conservancy project, to the proportion of the concrete for the force test, to ensure that the performance of concrete To meet the construction requirements of the water conservancy project.

Before the construction of the water conservancy project, the construction personnel should strictly check the construction materials and equipment, and select the appropriate construction materials and equipment according to the construction plan to ensure the smooth implementation of the entire construction project .

3.2 Control the temperature during concrete placement and solidification

The temperature difference between the inside and outside of concrete is the main cause of concrete cracks, so the construction personnel should strictly control the temperature therein, and this control of concrete temperature is generally reflected in the following aspects.

Firstly, in the selection of raw materials for concrete, those cements with less heat should be selected as far as possible.

Secondly, according to the construction season, in the construction process, control the temperature of concrete, in the summer when the construction of water conservancy projects, the construction personnel should cool down the interior of the concrete to reduce the occurrence of temperature differences due to water evaporation, in the process of concrete pouring, if the construction site temperature is high, the construction personnel can add an appropriate amount of ice water in it to achieve the control of The purpose of temperature; choose the appropriate pouring process, in the process of concrete pouring, you can choose the layered pouring process, can increase the contact area of the concrete, speed up the heat dissipation, you can also add water pipes inside the concrete, in the case of high temperature, you can add ice water to reduce the internal temperature of the concrete.

3.3 solve the external imbalance in the water conservancy project

Before the construction of the water conservancy project, the construction personnel should make a detailed analysis of the force situation of each part of the water conservancy building, especially for the dam part of the water conservancy building, to consider the speed and impact of the intercepted water, in addition to the concrete load-bearing capacity of the test, to ensure the balance of forces in the structure of the water conservancy building in all parts [4].

4 Conclusion

In the construction of water conservancy projects, in order to ensure the quality of water conservancy projects, the construction personnel should analyze the main causes of concrete cracks in the construction process, so as to control the main factors to reduce the concrete cracks, so as to improve the quality of the project and ensure the safety of people’s lives and property.

Origami Dragon Instructions For Purchasers Of Origami dragons, Stick-O-Howler, One-Two, Tight- Fight, and Many Others.

Art enthusiast will find origami dragon instructions in different varieties. You could have origami dragon that is in the shape of your favorite cartoon character for a young boy to show it off on his admired papers, or origami dragon in already taken-awk authors seek.

Origami dragon that has a base of paper is easy to create and not as time consuming as the origami crane. The origami dragon has many other uses not just for the decor of rooms. It could be a gift item your loved one could use after listening to the story of the origami dragon.

Origami dragon creations Bring Life To describing imaginary creatures or animals in our head and living in our imagination. So who said origami dragon was only for reduced ladies and dwarfs?

Creating that you can make at your own with the origami dragon depends on your detailed origami dragon instruction and easy origami pattern. In other words, if you will buy origami dragon kit, it may come with instructions on how to make a certain origami dragon, while the only difference between kits and the origami dragon is the size.

origami dragon kits with detailed instructions will include all of the folds to make it like an exact replica of the origami dragon. The origami dragon instructions you buy should include the required folds and creases in a step-by-step manner to help you start making your origami dragon naturally.

Origami dragon construction:

The complete fold or the creases are usually done in such a way that it is easier for the owner to be surprised while folding the origami dragon. Do not cut the paper in the wrong creases, or even upside down. Be sure that you will stick around the creases properly.

Get the required materials are to create your origami dragon by making use of the right folds, with correct creases and cuts. The basic concept of origami is making use of the folds to make a 3-dimensional object from a flat surface. This is greatly needed in building origami dragon designs and some instructions would help you on how to fold it properly without having to modify the origami dragon design.

The whole process of origami begins at the base. It may be made from two paper plates or three smaller rectangular pieces. Prefer the 3-dimensional origami dragon from different views of the origami dragon.

Striking the right folds and marks during the origami dragon creation is indeed a challenge, but we have an instruction on how to find the right folds and creases in creating the origami dragon shapes. Fold the paper with right marks and make the fold carefully. Now, carry the piece to the right crease where you must place it until you reach the bottom fold.

Now, the corners must be clipped off, and the paper must be placed in order to get them in place. The most accurate way to know if you have done all the right Fold marks and creases is to look at the creases on the paper. When you find the spot that except one or two of the marks kept, then you have done all the necessary folds.

Now, make sure you will use the right creases as stated by the origami dragon creator. Do not let chances of making wrong origami dragonreaths. Have the right creases and folds done properly, and you will have the perfect origami dragon.

What is a convex pipe connection?

Convex odd pipe connection technology, can solve the traditional metal pipe such as: the current common galvanized pipe, stainless steel pipe, galvanized pipe lined with plastic, the metal pipe in the connection is often used to damage the pipe end of the practice that wring teeth or open groove, Because the rib has a certain height and depth requirements, in order to ensure the pipe connection strength and sealing performance, the wall thickness of the production pipe needs to be reserved enough allowance for the processing of the pipe end. As a result, the wall thickness of the pipe is much higher than the actual fluid pressure set size, this part of the increase in wall thickness size called “excess wall thickness.” Due to the existence of traditional metal pipe wall thickness, resulting in a large number of metal pipe material waste, production costs will also increase.

The convex ring (commonly known as reinforcing root) at the end of convex odd tube can increase the radial pressure and radial tension at the tube end. Without considering the case of large external compression force, The wall thickness of the pipe can be directly based on the calculation method of “theoretical wall thickness” plus “reserved wall thickness,” including corrosion resistance, pressure resistance, heat resistance to heating and the processing error of pipe manufacturing, etc. Pipe does not exist excess wall thickness, fundamentally reduce the consumption of metal pipe material.

Convex odd pipe and the pipe fitting form “the tight pressing buckle type” the connection method, abbreviates “the convex odd connection method”, firm sealing is good. The installation tool is light and simple, which makes the installation and connection very fast and convenient, greatly improves the construction work efficiency, and has the advantages of beautiful appearance, durability, light weight, etc.

It has been proved by experiments that the axial tension can bear more than 2000KG and can not pull off the pipe and the pipe fitting when the convex odd pipe and pipe fitting are firmly connected.

Convex odd pipe connection technology, suitable for all metal pipe connection. The international standard “convex odd connection method” is a major innovation and a major breakthrough in the metal pipeline industry. The appearance of this technology will open the prologue of the transformation of metal pipe.

The function of curved double melting Pipe fittings and its difference from other Pipe fittings

Curved elastic double melt pipe fittings are connected by hot melt socket, as long as the special connection pipe skin is peeled off, heated with heating tools, fusion can be done, this kind of pipe fitting is a special pipe fitting of curved elastic vector pipeline system, and this kind of pipe system as a whole is light pipe body steel support. The pressure bearing capacity is as high as PN2.5MPa, which can fully adapt to the challenges of various positions of various buildings. It is the core component to ensure the maintenance-free application of curved elastic vector aluminum alloy lined composite pipeline system.

In the curved elastic vector cold and hot water supply pipeline system:

  1. Improve installation efficiency and control installation quality
    This kind of pipe fitting surface is equipped with hot melt bearing measure positioning mark, when the pipe system installs the pipe and the pipe fitting connection, only needs to refer to the curved elastic double melt pipe fitting surface hot melt socket positioning mark, can mark on the pipeline surface “fusion connection depth fixed”
    Bit Line and socket depth Positioning Line do not need to view the socket depth data and use the ruler tool. The improved installation method of this setting can effectively control the occurrence of fusion quality accidents caused by excessive or insufficient insertion, and make the installation effective.
    The rate has been greatly improved.
  2. Design to ensure fusion quality
    Design of connection structure to prevent “virtual melting” / “leakage” double melting socket. Hot melt bearing plug connection is easy to form welding gap or insufficient melting surface, which is usually called “leakage melting” or “virtual melting”. The fusion quality can not be guaranteed, resulting in hidden danger of pipeline connection quality accident. The engineers and technicians are
    In the structure of special curved elastic double fusion pipe fittings, the designed reverse stacking fusion section can make the interference fluid material produced by axial bearing insertion welding form a reverse stacking fusion section at the socket, and can make the reverse stacking fusion section produced by axial socket fusion.
    The fluid surplus material forms the reverse stacking fusion at the socket port, fills the axial socket weld gap and leakage point interest number, and runs out of the net, which not only ensures the safety of melt strength and forming structure, but also can be thoroughly applied in the aspect of installation quality assurance.
    The bottom eliminates the “leakage” / “virtual melting”, and provides the double melting connection of axial bearing connection and reverse stacking fusion connection to ensure the increase.
  3. The structure design to prevent the pipe from shrinking and clogging caused by fusion accumulation ensures the water flow capacity.
  4. The quality of pipeline connection can avoid the hidden danger of safety in long-term application, and it is the core component to ensure the long-term maintenance-free application of pipeline.
    Curved elastic vector aluminum alloy lined composite pipe is a kind of lightweight rigid pipe because it is outer aluminum alloy and lined with PPR plastic. The application of aluminum alloy and lined food grade PPR plastic can reduce the pressure caused by the weight of the pipe itself, so it can ensure the rigid support of the metal pipe and the earthquake resistance of the elastic pipe fittings. That is to say, compared with the traditional metal pipeline, it is lighter, and at the same time, because of abandoning the traditional metal pipe clasp connection mode, the pipeline can ensure the stability under the condition of fretting.

Different from metal applications:

Because the metal pipeline itself is too heavy, so the construction cost is high, and the traditional clasp connection is also rigid connection, so if encountered minor earthquake and other problems, it is very easy to appear safety risks, resulting in pipeline rupture.
Finally, because the traditional metal pipeline is the metal itself in contact with water, there are a large number of ions in the water, so it is easy to corrode the metal pipeline for a long time. It will not only cause the quality and life of pipeline pressure capacity to decline, but also cause hidden dangers to the sanitation level of drinking water.

Different from the traditional pure plastic pipe application:

The traditional composite pipe is mainly steel lined plastic pipe, although this kind of pipe is lined with food grade plastic, it can effectively increase the service life and hygiene grade of metal pipe. However, because the weight of the steel lined plastic pipeline itself is still relatively heavy, so the connection mode is still the traditional clasp connection, so there are still some hidden dangers in the construction cost and safety.
In addition, there is a kind of aluminum-plastic composite pipe (steady-state pipe). This kind of pipe is three-layer structure outer layer plastic, the middle is aluminum tube, the inner layer is plastic. This kind of pipe has a great improvement compared with pure metal or pure plastic pipe, at the same time, the bearing capacity is much higher than that of ordinary pure plastic pipe, but the diameter of aluminum-plastic composite pipe is very small, which can not be used as the main pipe of building, branch pipe and so on, because the bearing capacity of aluminum-plastic composite pipe itself is not high, at the same time, the bearing capacity is only relatively high relative to pure plastic pipe, but far from reaching the pressure of metal pipe.

What are the classification of socket fittings? What is the difference between the socket pipe and the mouth pipe?

What is a socket fitting?
Socket pipe fittings, mainly divided into high pressure pipe connection fittings are made of round steel or steel ingots molded forging blank, and then machined by lathe forming, And PP resin modified polypropylene low pressure pipe fittings with curved elastic double melting socket connection.
Classification of socket fittings
1, socket pipe series Ann connection form is divided into socket welding connection (SW), welding (BW), thread connection (TRs), bending elastic double fusion socket connection.

  1. Socket pipe fittings are classified according to pressure grade. The pressure grade of pipe fittings is divided into 3000LB (SCH80), 6000L (SCH 160), 9000 (XXS). The pressure level of the pipe fittings with screw connection is divided into 2000LB, 3000LB and 6000L. The nominal pressure of the low pressure pipe fittings is PN2.5MPa.
    3, according to the production of raw materials classification generally have carbon steel socket pipe fittings, stainless steel socket fittings, alloy steel socket pipes, polypropylene PPR socket fittings.
    4, socket pipe fittings classified by use are:
    The pipe fittings used for the mutual connection of pipes are: flange, live joint, pipe hoop, clamp sleeve, throat hoop and so on.
    Pipe fittings to change the direction of the pipe: elbow, bend.
    Changing the diameter of the pipe fittings: reducing diameter (reducing pipe), reducing elbow, branch Taiwan, reinforcing pipe.
    Pipe fittings to increase pipe branch: Tee, Four.
    Pipe fittings for pipeline sealing: gasket, raw material belt, lint.
    The Difference Between Orostomal Tube and Intubation
    1, socket is a pipe inserted into another pipe, and then fixed with cement or glue. Sink pipe in the connection, generally need to seal the rubber ring at the connection. The grooves below the socketed pipe are easier to handle.
    2, the mouth is two water pipes and connect the middle of the sealing ring with Rose fixed. Mouth pipe in the connection, generally need to be put through the connection. Concrete cushion is needed to deal with the grooves below the pipe.
    In fact, the use of socket pipe fittings in our lives is more, such as heating pipe links in a single pipe link to add a tee, is a socket pipe fitting. And we need to change the direction of heating pipes will add an elbow to change direction, this similar application in the rural chimney will also be used. Socket pipe fittings production of raw materials are different, such as stainless steel, alloy steel, etc. Small series of the above from different aspects of the socket pipe fittings were classified, you can do reference.

What Are Pipeline Fittings And Valves?

A pipe fitting is a part that connects a pipe into a line. According to the connection method can be divided into socket pipe fitting, threaded pipe fittings, flange pipe fittings and welded pipe four categories. Made of the same material as the pipe. There are elbow (elbow), flange, three-way pipe, four-way pipe (crosshead) and reducing pipe (size head) and so on. A place where a pipe bends; an elbow. Flange is used to connect pipe to pipe parts, connected to the end of the pipe, tee is used for the place where three pipes meet; A place where four pipes meet; a quad pipe. A place where two pipes of different diameters are connected.
(1) cut-off valve: cut-off valve also known as closed-circuit valve, its role is to connect or cut off the medium in the pipeline. Block valves include gate valves, globe valves, plug valves, ball valves, erfly valves and diaphragm, etc.
(2) check valve: Check valve calls boiler check valve again check valve or check valve, its action is to prevent medium backflow in pipeline. Pump water off the end of the boiler check valve also belongs to the category
(3) mud relief valve: the role of relief valve is to prevent pipeline or device medium pressure in excess of the specified value, so as to achieve the purpose of safety protection.
(4) control valve: Control valve including control valve, throttle valve and pressure reducing valve, its role is to regulate the pressure of the media, such as flow parameters.
(5) shunt valve: shunt valve, including a variety of distribution valves and traps, etc., its role is to distribute, separate or mixed media pipeline.
What are the advantages?
Different pipe fittings are slightly different.
Sheung Shui: If lined with plastic steel pipe, pipe diameter DN100 following wire connection, elbow, tee, four, hoop, on the wire, diameter change, wire plug and so on.
Pipe diameter DN100 or more trench connection, trench elbow, trench three, trench four, trench flange, mechanical three, mechanical four, and so on.
If the words of plastic pipe (PPR water pipe, etc.): hot melt tee, hot melt elbow, direct hot melt, hot-melt variable diameter, directly within the wire, the wire directly, wire elbow, 90, etc.
Water: mechanism of cast iron pipe, then: 45 degrees oblique tee, along the water tee, 45 degrees inclined four-way, with the water Sitong, double 45 degree elbow, 90 degrees elbow, 45-degree bend, are three, four, the riser check port, the level of cleaning pipe, blocking, and so on.
Plastic pipes, such as UPVC drains, Bonding: 45 degrees oblique tee, water three, 45 degrees inclined four, water four, 45 degree elbow, is three, four, riser inspection mouth, horizontal cleaning pipe, plugging and so on.